The War of 1812 is generally thought to have been caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British Navy. And while impressment was a major factor behind the declaration of war by the United States against Britain, there were other issues that fueled the American march toward war.
During the first three decades of American independence there was a general feeling that the British government had very little respect for the young United States. And during the Napoleonic Wars the British government actively sought to meddle with or completely suppress American trade with European nations.
British arrogance and hostility went so far as to include a deadly attack by the British frigate HMS Leopard upon USS Chesapeake in 1807. The Chesapeake and Leopard affair, which began when the British officer boarded the American ship demanding to seize sailors believed to be deserters from British ships, nearly triggered a war.
In late 1807, President Thomas Jefferson, seeking to avoid war while calming public outcry against British insults to American sovereignty, had enacted the Embargo Act of 1807. It had largely been a failure, as turned out to be more harmful to the United States than to its intended targets, Britain and France.
When James Madison became president in early 1809 he also sought to avoid war with Britain. But British actions, and a continuing drumbeat for war in the U.S. Congress, made a new war with Britain unavoidable.
The slogan "Free Trade and Sailor's Rights" became a rallying cry.
Madison, Congress, and the Move Toward War
In early June 1812 President James Madison sent a message to Congress in which he listed complaints about British behavior toward America. Madison brought up several issues:
- Continual harassment of American commerce by British warships
- British laws, known as Orders in Council, declaring blockades against American ships bound for European ports
- Attacks by "savages" on "one of our extensive frontiers" believed to be instigated by British troops in Canada
The U.S. Congress was being steered by an aggressive faction of young legislators in the House of Representatives known as the War Hawks.
Henry Clay, a leader of the War Hawks, was a young member of Congress from Kentucky. Representing the views of Americans living in the West, Clay believed that war with Britain would not only restore American prestige, it would also provide a great benefit in territory.
An openly stated goal of the western War Hawks was for the United States to invade and seize Canada. And there was a belief that it would be easy to achieve.
The War of 1812 has often been called "America's Second War for Independence," and that title is appropriate. The young United States government was determined to make Britain respect it.
The United States Declared War In June 1812
Following the message sent by President Madison, the United States Senate and the House of Representatives held votes on whether to go to war.
The vote in the House of Representatives was held on June 4, 1812, and members voted 79 to 49 to go to war.
In the House vote, the members of Congress supporting the war tended to be from the South and West, and those opposed from the Northeast.
The U.S. Senate, on June 17, 1812, voted 19 to 13 to go to war.
In the Senate the vote also tended to be along regional lines, with most of the votes against the war coming from the Northeast.
With so many members of Congress voting against going to war, the War of 1812 was always controversial.
The official Declaration of War was signed by President James Madison on June 18, 1812. It read as follows:
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That war be and is hereby declared to exist between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the dependencies thereof, and the United States of America and their territories; and the President of the United States is hereby authorized to use the whole land and naval force of the United States, to carry the same into effect, and to issue private armed vessels of the United States commissions or letters of marque and general reprisal, in such form as he shall think proper, and under the seal of the United States, against the vessels, goods, and effects of the government of the said United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the subjects thereof.
American Preparations for the War
While the war not declared until late June 1812, the United States government had been actively making preparations for the outbreak of war. In early 1812 the Congress had passed a law actively calling for volunteers for the U.S. Army, which was had remained fairly small in the years following independence.
American forces under the command of General William Hull had started marching from Ohio toward Fort Detroit (site of present day Detroit, Michigan) in late May 1812. The plan was for Hull's forces to invade Canada, and the proposed invasion force was already in position by the time war was declared. (The invasion proved to be a disaster, however, when Hull surrendered Fort Detroit to the British that summer.)
American naval forces had also been prepared for the outbreak of war. And given the slowness of communication, some American ships in the early summer of 1812 attacked British ships whose commanders had not yet learned of the official outbreak of the war.
Opposition to the War Was a Persistent Problem
The fact that the war was not universally popular proved to be a problem, especially when the early phases of the war, such as the military fiasco at Fort Detroit, went badly. Though patriotism often ran high, and was boosted by some of the successes of the underdog U.S. Navy, the general feeling in some parts of the country, particularly New England, was that the war had been a bad idea.
As it became obvious that the war would be costly and may prove to be impossible to win militarily, the desire to find a peaceful end to the conflict intensified. American officials were eventually dispatched to Europe to work toward a negotiated settlement, the result of which was the Treaty of Ghent.
When the war officially ended with the signing of the treaty, there was no clear winner. And, on paper, both sides admitted that things would return to how they had been before hostilities began.
However, in a realistic sense, the United States had proven itself to be an independent nation capable of defending itself. And Britain, perhaps from having noticed that the American forces seemed to become stronger as the war went on, made no further attempts to undermine American sovereignty.