The Emancipation Proclamation was a document signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863 freeing the slaves then held in the states in rebellion to the United States.
The signing of the Emancipation Proclamation did not free a great many slaves in a practical sense, as it couldn't be enforced in areas beyond the control of Union troops. However, it signaled an important clarification of the federal government's policy toward slaves, which had been evolving since the outbreak of the Civil War.
Background of the Emancipation Proclamation
When the war began in the spring of 1861, the declared purpose of President Abraham Lincoln was to hold together the Union, which had been split by the secession crisis. The stated purpose of the war, at that juncture, was not to end slavery.
However, events in the summer of 1861 made a policy about slavery necessary. As Union forces moved into territory in the South, slaves would escape and make their way to the Union lines. The Union general Benjamin Butler improvised a policy, terming the fugitive slaves “contrabands” and often putting them to work within the Union camps as laborers and camp hands.
In late 1861 and early 1862 the U.S. Congress passed laws dictating what the status of the fugitive slaves should be, and in June 1862 the Congress abolished slavery in the western territories (which was remarkable considering the controversy in “Bleeding Kansas” less than a decade earlier). Slavery was also abolished in the District of Columbia.
Abraham Lincoln had always been opposed to slavery, and his political rise had been based on his opposition to the spread of slavery, which he expressed in the Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858 and at his speech at Cooper Union in New York City in early 1860. In the summer of 1862, in the White House, Lincoln was contemplating a declaration that would free the slaves.
The Timing of the Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln felt that if the Union army secured a victory on the battlefield, he could issue such a proclamation. And the epic Battle of Antietam gave him the opportunity. On September 22, 1862, five days after Antietam, Lincoln announced a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.
The final Emancipation Proclamation was signed and issued on January 1, 1863.
The Emancipation Proclamation Did Not Immediately Free Many Slaves
As was often the case, Lincoln had been faced with very complicated political considerations. There were border states where slavery was legal, but which were supporting the Union. And Lincoln did not want to drive them into the arms of the Confederacy. So the border states (Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri, and the western part of Virginia, which was soon to become the state of West Virginia) were exempted.
And as a practical matter, the slaves in the Confederacy were not free until the Union Army took possession of a region.
The Emancipation Proclamation was issued as part of the president’s role as commander-in-chief during wartime, and was not a law in the sense of being passed by the U.S. Congress.
The spirit of the Emancipation Proclamation was fully enacted into law by the ratification of the 13th Amendment to the U.S Constitution in December 1865.