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Robert McNamara

Updated Articles and Resources

By Robert McNamara

    Updated Articles and Resources
    • Tweed Ring Associates Created: Wednesday, July 30, 2014 Updated: Wednesday, July 30, 2014
      The Tweed Ring consisted of three main associates who helped Boss Tweed operate his corrupt administration of New York City.
    • New York City's 1814 Defenses Created: Wednesday, July 30, 2014 Updated: Wednesday, July 30, 2014
      A feared attack by the British in 1814 prompted thousands of New Yorkers to volunteer to construct fortifications to defend the city.
    • Joshua Barney Created: Wednesday, July 30, 2014 Updated: Wednesday, July 30, 2014
      Commodore Joshua Barney, an early American naval hero, distinguished himself with bravery on land while trying to stop the 1814 British attack on Washington.
    • Dolley Madison Created: Wednesday, July 30, 2014 Updated: Wednesday, July 30, 2014
      Dolley Madison saved valuables from destruction before the British burned the White House.
    • General Winfield Scott Created: Wednesday, July 30, 2014 Updated: Wednesday, July 30, 2014
      Winfield Scott was an influential figure in the American military for decades, from the War of 1812 to the Civil War.
    • Jim Crow Laws Created: Wednesday, July 30, 2014 Updated: Wednesday, July 30, 2014
      Jim Crow Laws were statutes that ordered segregation between white and blacks in public spaces beginning in the 1880s.
    • Plessy v. Ferguson Created: Tuesday, July 29, 2014 Updated: Tuesday, July 29, 2014
      The landmark Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision legitimized Jim Crow laws and racial segregation.
    • Great Railroad Strike of 1877 Created: Tuesday, July 29, 2014 Updated: Tuesday, July 29, 2014
      The Great Strike of railroad workers in 1877 led to violent clashes between federal troops and workers and had a permanent effects on American society.
    • George Washington: Significant Facts and Brief Biography Created: Saturday, February 23, 2013 Updated: Tuesday, July 29, 2014
      The basic facts one should know about George Washington, military hero and first president of the United States.
    • James Madison: Significant Facts and Brief Biography Created: Thursday, July 26, 2012 Updated: Tuesday, July 29, 2014
      The facts one should know about James Madison, America's fourth president and the man considered The Father of the Constitution.
    • How Did the Statue of Liberty Come to Symbolize Immigration? Created: Thursday, October 27, 2011 Updated: Tuesday, July 22, 2014
      A poem by Emma Lazarus essentially changed the meaning of the Statue of Liberty, which had not been intended to be a symbol of immigration.
    • Battle of Bull Run: Summer of 1861 Disaster for Union Army Created: Monday, June 20, 2011 Updated: Monday, July 21, 2014
      The First Battle of Bull Run (or First Manassas) was considered a defeat for the Union, and it destroyed any hope that the war would be short and easy.
    • The Sinking of the Steamship Arctic Created: Sunday, July 12, 2009 Updated: Friday, July 18, 2014
      The sinking of the steamship Arctic, one of the grandest ships afloat in the 1850s, was a disaster that stunned the world in September 1854.
    • Violence Over Slavery on the Floor of the U.S. Senate Created: Monday, May 19, 2008 Updated: Monday, July 14, 2014
      A southern congressman beat an anti-slavery senator from Massachusetts with a cane in the U.S. Capitol as tensions over slavery boiled over in May 1856.
    • John Muir Inspired the Conservation Movement Created: Thursday, July 16, 2009 Updated: Monday, July 14, 2014
      Scottish-born John Muir was a strong advocate for the US National Parks in the 19th century.
    • Financier Russell Sage Attacked Created: Saturday, June 28, 2014 Updated: Monday, July 14, 2014
      Financier Russell Sage was nearly killed in 1891 when a dynamite bomb exploded in his Manhattan office.
    • Henry David Thoreau Created: Monday, August 17, 2009 Updated: Saturday, July 12, 2014
      Henry David Thoreau challenged popular thinking about life and society in works such as his book Walden and essay Civil Disobedience.
    • Abbottabad Named for British Officer Created: Sunday, June 29, 2014 Updated: Thursday, July 10, 2014
      Abbottabad, the hideout of Osama Bin Laden, was named for a fascinating 19th century British officer, Sir James Abbott.
    • Wet Plate Collodion Process of Photography Created: Sunday, October 30, 2011 Updated: Tuesday, July 08, 2014
      Wet plate collodion photography of the Civil War era required considerable expertise yet in the right hands it could produce remarkable results.
    • The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 Created: Sunday, June 01, 2008 Updated: Tuesday, July 08, 2014
      The highly controversial Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, intended as a compromise over slavery, actually inflamed tensions and hastened the Civil War.
    • Barbecue and Politics In the 19th Century Created: Sunday, June 29, 2014 Updated: Tuesday, July 08, 2014
      The American tradition of mixing barbecue and politics has strong roots in the 1800s.
    • Sinking of the Steamship Lexington Created: Sunday, June 29, 2014 Updated: Monday, July 07, 2014
      The burning and sinking of the steamship Lexington in Long Island Sound was a shocking disaster in January 1840.
    • William H. Seward Created: Wednesday, September 26, 2012 Updated: Sunday, July 06, 2014
      William H. Seward, political rival of Abraham Lincoln, became his secretary of state and skillfully guided U.S. foreign policy during the Civil War.
    • Abraham Lincoln and the Gettysburg Address Created: Monday, November 17, 2008 Updated: Sunday, July 06, 2014
      Abraham Lincoln had specific goals in mind and took great care in crafting the Gettysburg Address.
    • The Young U.S. Navy Battled North African Pirates Created: Sunday, April 12, 2009 Updated: Sunday, July 06, 2014
      President Thomas Jefferson refused to pay tribute and dispatched the young U.S. Navy to battle the Barbary Pirates.
    • Horace Greeley Prodded Lincoln Created: Sunday, June 29, 2014 Updated: Sunday, July 06, 2014
      Legendary editor Horace Greeley sharply criticized President Abraham Lincoln over the issue of slavery.
    • Frederick Douglass and the Fourth of July Created: Sunday, June 29, 2014 Updated: Saturday, July 05, 2014
      An eloquent 1852 speech by Frederick Douglass asked what the meaning of July 4th could be for the American slave.
    • First Crossing of the Brooklyn Bridge Created: Saturday, June 28, 2014 Updated: Saturday, July 05, 2014
      The first crossing of the Brooklyn Bridge, by an engineer dangling from a cable, happened at about the halfway point of the bridge's construction.
    • Congreve Rocket Created: Friday, April 27, 2012 Updated: Friday, July 04, 2014
      Definition of Congreve Rocket, British Weapon Referred to in the "Star-Spangled Banner."
    • Was Uncle Sam a Real Person? Created: Sunday, January 27, 2013 Updated: Friday, July 04, 2014
      The character of Uncle Sam, many would be surprised to know, was indeed based on a real man who lived 200 years ago.
    • Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg Created: Thursday, June 13, 2013 Updated: Thursday, July 03, 2014
      Pickett's Charge was an infantry attack that became the climax of the Battle of Gettysburg.
    • Decoration Day Created: Thursday, June 09, 2011 Updated: Thursday, July 03, 2014
      Decoration Day was the precursor of the holiday Memorial Day, and was first observed in 1868, following the carnage of the Civil War.

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