The presidential election of 1812 was held during a time of war, and was a opportunity for voters to render judgment on the presidency of James Madison, who had led the United States into the War of 1812.
When Madison declared war on Britain in June 1812 he faced considerable opposition from a broad section of Americans. Citizens in the Northeast in particular opposed the War of 1812, and the election to be held in November 1812 was viewed by political factions in New England as an opportunity to turn Madison out of office and find a way to find peace with Britain.
It's worth noting that the candidate nominated to run against Madison was a New Yorker. The presidency had been dominated by Virginians, and political figures in New York State believed it was time a candidate from their state, which had surpassed all other states in population, displaced the Virginia dynasty.
Madison won a second term in 1812. But the election was the closest presidential contest held between the deadlocked elections of 1800 and 1824, both of which were so close they had to be decided by votes held in the House of Representatives.
The reelection of Madison, who was obviously vulnerable, was partly attributable to some peculiar political circumstances that weakened his opposition.
War of 1812 Opponents Sought to End Madison's Presidency
The most strident opponents of the war, the remnants of the Federalist Party, felt they could not win by nominating one of their own candidates. So they approached a member of Madison's own party, DeWitt Clinton of New York, and encouraged him to run against Madison.
The choice of Clinton was peculiar. Clinton's own uncle, George Clinton, was a revered political figure in the early 19th century. One of the Founding Fathers, and a friend of George Washington, George Clinton had served as vice president during Thomas Jefferson's second term and also during the first term of James Madison.
The elder Clinton had once been considered a likely candidate for president, but his health began to fail and he died, while vice president, in April 1812.
With the death of George Clinton, attention turned to his nephew, who was serving as mayor of New York City.
DeWitt Clinton Ran a Muddled Campaign
Approached by Madison's opponents, Clinton DeWittagreed to run against the incumbent president. Though he did not, perhaps because of his muddled loyalties, mount a very vigorous candidacy.
Presidential candidates in the early 19th century did not campaign openly, and political messages in that era tended to be conveyed in newspapers and printed broadsheets. And Clinton's supporters from New York, calling themselves a committee of correspondence, did issue a lengthy statement that was essentially the Clinton platform.
The statement from Clinton supporters did not come out and oppose the War of 1812. Instead, it made a vague argument that Madison was not pursing the war competently, and new leadership was needed. If the Federalists who had supported DeWitt Clinton thought he would make their case, they were proven wrong.
Despite Clinton's fairly feeble campaign, the northeastern states, with the exception of Vermont, cast their electoral votes for Clinton. And for a time it appeared that Madison would be voted out of office.
When the final and official tally of electors was held, Madison had won with 128 electoral votes to Clinton's 89.
The electoral votes fell along regional lines: Clinton won the votes from the New England states, except for Vermont, and also New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland. Madison tended to win the electoral votes from the South and West.
Had the votes from one state, Pennsylvania, gone the other way, Clinton would have won. But Madison won Pennsylvania easily and thus secured a second term.
DeWitt Clinton's Political Career Continued
While his defeat in the presidential race seemed to damage his political prospects for a time, DeWitt Clinton bounced back. He had always been interested in building a canal across New York State, and when he became governor of New York he pushed for the building of the Erie Canal.
As it happened, the Erie Canal, though at times derided as "Clinton's Big Ditch," transformed New York and the United States. The commerce boosted by the canal made New York "The Empire State," and led to New York City becoming the economic powerhouse of the country.
So while DeWitt Clinton never became president of the United States, his role in building the Erie Canal may have actually been more important to the nation.